Supporting data

Supplementary Material

  • Supplementary Material are files either to aid the reviewer or for publication alongside the manuscript. Appropriate items for publication as supplementary materials include data tables and text (e.g., appendixes) that are too lengthy or of too limited interest for inclusion in the article. A URL link will be included in the published article to allow users to navigate directly to the associated files. Note that subdirectories (folders) are not acceptable. Please name files appropriately, so that all files can reside at the root directory, allowing successful linking between the published paper and its associated supplementary material.
  • All supplementary material for publication must be approved by the Journal Editor as part of a manuscript’s normal review cycle, and must be noted in a section before the Acknowledgments, as shown in the example below. AIP Publishing will insert the link.
  • All supplementary material is posted online exactly as provided by the author. AIP Publishing makes no changes to the supplementary material files, including text editing or file conversion.


Multimedia files may be included in the online version of published papers. Multimedia consists of video, audio, and 3D rendering files. Readers can view these multimedia files by simply clicking on a link in the paper, provided the reader has a video player. In addition to the multimedia file, please upload a static figure to represent the multimedia file in the article. The static file and the multimedia file should be numbered the same. Please add “(Multimedia view)” after the figure citation in text and in the figure caption. There will be a link placed in the caption to bring the reader directly to the multimedia file.

  • Video: Any file formats are acceptable up to 10MB. The preferred formats are .gif, .mov, and .mpg. Please insert a representative “still” image, taken from the video, in the manuscript as a figure. Care should be taken to extract an image that has reasonable clarity of fine lines and details. Acceptable file formats for still images are JPEG (.jpg) and GIF (.gif).
  • Audio: Acceptable file formats include PCM (.pcm), WAV (.wav), AIFF (.aif), and MP3 (.mp3) at 128 KB or greater.

Guidelines for preparing multimedia files:

  • Keep file size less than 10 MB so readers can download and view them.
  • When including multimedia, write the paper so that the print version, which does not contain multimedia functionality, can be understood on its own.
  • Submit all multimedia source files initially with the manuscript.
  • Treat all multimedia files as figures, numbered in sequence as they are referred to in text. (Multimedia files should not have a numbering scheme separate from the figures.)
  • Please be sure to cite all multimedia files in the text, referred to by their figure number.
  • For each multimedia file, provide a figure that is a static representation of the multimedia file. Also provide an accompanying caption. At the end of the caption, include the phrase “(Multimedia view).” The multimedia file will be linked to the static image online.
  • Video and other enhanced files should be in a format that can be viewed without difficulty. See the acceptable file formats section above for specific submission requirements.
  • Use of copyrighted material is not permitted.
  • Use media players to check file properties and image/sound quality prior to submission. For video submissions, fonts, lines, and image details should be of sufficient size and weight to be visible when played at half size.
  • Please use one of the accepted compression codecs to minimize file sizes.
  • Animations must be formatted into a standard video file.

Multimedia metadata

Please include information about your multimedia files. A caption or description of the content of the media file is required (similar to a typical figure caption). Additional metadata is also requested, but optional.

Metadata elements

  • Caption/description: Textual caption/description of the content of media object is required.
  • Type: The nature or genre of the content of the media, such as video or audio, is desirable (optional).
  • Format: This describes the media file type, such as QuickTime, DV, MPEG, PCM, or WAV (optional).

NB: The significant difference between providing videos as either Supplementary Material or Multimedia Files is outlined below.

  • If the video is associated with a figure in the article (or a still of the video clip), and you would like the video to be accessed directly via a link that would appear in the figure caption, please indicate that the videos are intended as integral multimedia files when you submit your article. In this way, the reader would click on the hyperlink to the videos appearing in the figure caption and the video will then immediately begin.
  • If the video is not specifically associated with any figure(s) in the article, and is purely supplemental information, which supports concepts discussed in your paper, please indicate that the videos are intended as supplementary material. Be sure to present the supplementary material video in a section before the Acknowledgments, as shown in the example above.